In this week’s Neurology, Saylor et al. report findings from Uganda looking at risk factors for peripheral neuropathy (PN) among 800 adults in the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Based upon the requirement for at least one symptom AND least one sign on physical examination, 13% of adults assessed had evidence of neuropathy. HIV was certainly a risk factor for PN, but 7% of HIV negative participants also had PN. Risk factors included age, neurotoxic medications and tobacco use. As the authors point out, these rates of PN warrant further investigations into possible causes, especially environmental exposures and nutritional vulnerabilities especially since the presence of PN was associated with impaired function.